Dating translate french
The Muslims ambush them at Roncesvalles and the Christians are overwhelmed.
Oliver pleads with Roland to blow his horn to call for help, but Roland tells him that blowing his horn in the middle of the battle would be an act of cowardice.
If Roland continues to refuse, Oliver won't let Roland see his sister again whom Roland loves the most.
However, Archbishop Turpin intervenes and tells them that the battle will be fatal for all of them and so instructs Roland to blow his horn olifant (the word is an old alternative to "elephant", and was used to refer to a hunting horn made from an elephant tusk) to call for help from the Frankish army. Charlemagne and his noblemen gallop back even though Count Ganelon tries to trick them.
The occurrence of this term in the poem cannot be interpreted as showing influence from the Crusades in the poem; on the contrary, the way it is used in the poem, in which it is simply a Muslim land, indicates that the author of the poem was unacquainted with the Crusades, and that the term was in French before the Crusades began meaning the far side of the Mediterranean Sea.
Meanwhile, Baligant, the powerful emir of Babylon, has arrived in Spain to help Marsile.
) is an epic poem based on the Battle of Roncevaux in 778, during the reign of Charlemagne.